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满语/第8节课 - 动词 3

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目录

对话编辑

  1. amba age si aibici jihe?
  2. bi coohiyan wang ging ci jihe.
  3. te absi genembi ?
  4. bi gemun hecen i baru genembi.
  5. si atanggi wang ging ci juraka?
  6. bi ere biyai ice de juraka.
  7. si ere biyai ice de jurafi, te hontoho biya hamika bime ainu teni ubade isinjiha?
  8. emu gucu tutafi jime ofi, bi elhe seme aliyakiyame yabure jakade tuttu jime goidaha.
  9. tere gucu te amcame isinjimbio akvn?
  10. ere uthai tere gucu inu, sikse teni jihe.
  11. si bodoci ere biyai manashvn gemun hecen de isinambio isinarakvn?
  12. bi adarame bahafi sambi? abka gosifi beye elhe oci isinambi dere.
  13. si coohiyan i niyalma kai, geli ai xolo de nikan i gisun be mujakv sain i taciha?
  14. bi daci nikan i niyalma de bithe taciha be dahame, nikan i gisun be majige bahanambi.
  15. si wede bithe taciha?
  16. bi nikan i tacikv de bithe taciha.
  17. si ai jergi bithe be taciha?
  18. bi leolen gisuren mengdzi ajigan tacin i bithe be taciha.
  19. si inenggidari aibe kicembi?
  20. inenggidari gersi fersi de ilifi tacikv de genefi sefu de bithe tacimbi, tacikv ci facame boode jifi buda jeme wajiha manggi, uthai tacikv de genefi bithe arame sefui juleri bithe be giyangnambi.
  21. ai bithe be giyangnambi?
  22. leolen gisuren mengdzi ajigan tacin i bithe be giyangnamgbi.
  23. bithe giyangname wajifi jai aibe kicembi?
  24. yamji oho manggi, sefui juleri sibiya tatafi bithe xejilembi, xejileme mutehengge oci sefu guwebure bithe emke be bumbi, aika xejileme muterakv oci, kadalara xusai tere be dedubufi ilan moo tantambi.
  25. sibiya tatafi bithe xejilere, guwebure bithe burengge adarame?


译文编辑

  1. 大阿哥你從那裡來的?
  2. 我從朝鮮王京來的
  3. 如今往那裡去?
  4. 我往京城去。
  5. 你幾時從王京起程的?
  6. 我在本月初一日起程的。
  7. 你既是在本月一日起程的,到現在差不多半個月,為何纔到這裡呢?
  8. 因為有一個伙伴落後了來,我慢慢走著等候,所以來遲了。
  9. 那個伙伴現在趕到了嗎?
  10. 這個伙伴便是,昨天纔到的。
  11. 你計算本月底能到京城嗎?
  12. 我怎麼得知,若上天憐憫身體安好時,想是可到吧!
  13. 你是朝鮮人,又有什麼空閒把漢語學的相當好呢?
  14. 我原來跟漢人讀書,因此會一點漢語。
  15. 你跟誰讀書的?
  16. 我在漢學堂裡讀書的。
  17. 你讀的是那類書呢?
  18. 我讀的是論語、孟子、小學的書。
  19. 你每天做什麼功課?
  20. 每天清早起來到學校裡跟老師讀書,放學到家裡吃完飯後就到學校裡去寫字,在師傅面前講書。
  21. 講什麼書?
  22. 講論語、孟子、小學的書。
  23. 講完書又做什麼功課?
  24. 到晚間在師傅面前抽籤背書,若能背時,師傅給一張免帖,若是不能背時,管理的生員叫他臥倒打三板。
  25. 抽籤背書怎麼給免帖?


生词编辑

............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................
满语 汉语 满语 汉语
abici 从哪里 absi 怎样、怎么、如何、何其、多么
age 阿哥 ajigan 略小、幼小
aliyakiyambi 慢走、等候 amcambi 追赶、够得着、及
atanggi 何时、几时 bahambi 取得、分得、得到、得(病)
baru 向、朝 bime
bodombi 想、算、筹划、料想、估计 buda
coohiyan 朝鲜 dahambi 跟随、投降
dahame 因为 dedubumbi 使卧、使躺
elhe 安、平安、慢、缓慢 emke 一个
facambi 散、解散、放学、散乱、无头绪 gemun 首都、京城
gersi fersi 黎明 giyangnambi
goidambi 久、长久、耽搁 gosimbi 怜爱、宠爱、恩赐、饶恕、辣痛
guwebumbi 宽免、宽宥、饶恕 hamimbi 将足、将足够、能忍受、将近、接近
hecen 城、城墙 hontoho 半、半个
ice 新、(旧历每月的)初一 ilimbi 起来、站立、立、安、起、兴起、停止、停息
jakade 跟前、处所、由于、因为 jembi 吃、食、蛀蚀
jergi 级别、品级、级、等级、等次、水平、程度、阵、一般、同等、等 juleri 前、前面
jurambi 起程、出发 kadalambi 管、管辖、统领、指挥
kicembi 用功、勤奋 leolen gisuren 论语
manashvn 月终 moo 木头、树木
mujakv 着实、的确、非常 mutembi 能、成
sefu 师傅、老师 sibiya tatambi 抽签
tacin 学习、学业、习俗、习惯、教、道 tantambi
tatambi 拉、扯、拔、抽、消退、退落、扎营、住宿 teni 才、刚才
tutambi 落后、留下、遗留、垂留 wajimbi 完毕、完蛋、丢尽
xejilembi 背诵 xusai 秀才
yamji 晚上


语法编辑

动词 (part 3)编辑

副动词编辑

The main converbs in Manchu are:


1) Coordinative -me

This converb modifies the following verb and is similar to Uyghur '-up'. It also expresses simultaneous action. E.g.

  • ai baita be arame genembi? (what are you going to do)


2) Subordinative -fi

Refers to a sequence of actions where one action is completed before another one begins. It is like English 'then', and also a bit like 'because' E.g.

  • bi genefi tuwaki (I will go and (then) have a look)


3) Conditional -ci

This is the conditional converb and is similar to English 'if'. E.g.

  • bi tuwaci (if I look)


4) Durative -hai (-hei, -hoi)

This converb is used to express that an action occurs or continues at the same time as another action is performed. E.g.

  • necimbihei yabumbi (to continuously invade)


5) Terminative -tala (-tele, -tolo)

This converb is used to show that an action occurs up to a certain time.

  • aratala (until he writes)


6) Instrumental -tai (-tei, -toi)

This converb is used to show that an action is being forced

  • bucetei daharakv (I will not submit even if I die)


7) Preparative -nggala (-nggele, -nggolo)

This converb is like English ‘before’

  • utala inenggi onggolo (several days ago)


8) Concessive -cibe

This converb is like Enlgish ‘although’

  • tuttu bicibe (although it is like that)


9) Alternative -ralame (-relame, -rolame)

This converb is used to show that two actions are being performed at the same time

  • bi yaburalame tuwambi (looking as I’m going along)


10) Simultaneous -mbime

This converb is used to show that one action is occurring (or not) while another action takes place

  • si baita be sambi sembime, ainu takarakv (while you say you know about the matter, how come you don’t?)

auxiliary verbs (助动词)编辑

Three important auxiliary verbs in Manchu are:

  • sembi – sembi means ‘to say’
  • ombi – ‘ombi’ can be translated as ‘to become’, ‘to be’, ‘to act as’,
  • bimbi – ‘bimbi’ can be translated as ‘to be or ‘is’.


Irregular verbs (table)编辑

This table is a list of all the irregular Manchu verbs and their irregular forms. Note a blank space indicates that this form of the verb is regular. Note verbs where the suffix ‘-fi’ becomes ‘-pi’ or ‘-mpi’ are not included.

............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ...............................................
Dictionary form Meaning Past tense Future Tense Imperative
gerembi Dawn gereke gerendere
guwembi To avoid guwengke guwendere
colgorombi To be complete colgoroko
ombi To become, can ojoro oso
gvmbi To bite furiously gvndere
gvwaliyambi To change gvwaliyaka
jimbi To come jidere jio
wasimbi To desced, be defeated wasika (wasiha) wasinu
jembi To eat jeke (jengke) jetere (jendere) jefu
tucimbi To exit, to set out, to come out tucike (tucihe) tucinu
sumbi To explain, to get rid of suhe (sungke)
jailambi To flee, hide jailara (jailandara)
ukambi To flee, hide ukaha (ukaka)
bahambi To get baha
xahvrambi To get a cold xahvraka
yombi To go yoro (yondoro)
bimbi To have / at bisire bisu
xumbi To know copletely xungke
baimbi To look for baisu
wembi To melt into wengke were (wendere)
juwambi To open, open one's mounth jawangka (juwaka)
hafumbi To pass through hafuka hafundara
jombi To raise jongko jondoro
wesimbi To raise wesike wesina
teyembi To rest teyere (teyendere)
eldembi To shine on eldeke
xambi To stare xaha (xangka)
gajimbi To take back gaju
gombi To take back gondoro
gaimbi To take, to want gaisu
fumbi To wipe fungke
............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ............................................... ...............................................

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