学说四川话

一、四川话的声音系统编辑

四川话的声音系统可以正好用26个拉丁字母表达。但其实,在成都-重庆只有23个字母,在甘孜-阿坝-凉山-内江-自贡,有25个字母(多出两个翘舌音r和c),在从都江堰到江津的岷江-长江一线,还要再加一个字母——紧喉音w。紧喉音对中国人较为陌生,但他其实是东南亚非常常见的声音。以下是四川话的字母表。

字母 国际音标 字母 国际音标
a /a/ n /n/
b /p/ o /o/
c /ʃ/ p /ph/
d /t/ q /ŋ/
e /e/ r /r/
f /f/ s /s/
g /k/ t /th/
h /h/ u /u/
i /i/ v /v/
j /j/ w 紧喉音
k /kh/ x /ɕ/
l /l/ y /y/
m /m/ z /z/

四川话还有4~5个声调,上面所说的“都江堰到江津”这带是5个调,其余地方是4个调。“都江堰到江津”这带多出来的声调其实就是“紧喉音”,它单独成调。在成都重庆,紧喉音并入第2声;在内江自贡,并入第4声;在雅安,并入第1声。如果我们把声调均分为5个阶梯,以5为高,那么四川话的声调就是这样的:

第一声:45(完整调)44(半调)

第二声:21(完整调)22(半调)

第三声:31(完整调)33(半调)

第四声:14(完整调)11(半调)

第五声:33(完整调)3(半调)

完整调只出现在词头,也就是说,完整调是用来区分句子成分的。

今后,本教程只在介绍生词时和必要时标注声调,方法以右上角标1~5来提示该第几声。

二、四川话的swadesh表编辑

swadesh表即核心词汇表,短版100词、长版207词,以下是长版。短线左边是英语,右边是蜀语。

I-qo
you (singular)-nj
he-ta(成渝系)/la(江贡系)
we-qomen/qom/qun
you (plural)-njmen/njm/njnn
they-tamen/tam(成渝系)//lamen/lam/lann(江贡系)
this-drego
that-lego(中等远)/laigo(非常远)
here-dreli/dregan/dredaq
there-leli/legan/ledaq(中等远)//laili/laigan/laidaq(非常远)
who-lago
what-cadz/hadz(成渝系)//coqgo/coqqo/hoqgo/hoqqo(江贡系)
where-lali/lagan/ladaq
when-haudjou
how-laqdz/laqmen/drago
not-mo/mau
all-dou
many-modo
some-x
few-djgo/gobadz
other-geuei
one-igo
two-liaqgo
three-sango
four-sgo
five-vgo
big-taigo
small-xaugo
long-tcaqso
short-duanso
wide-kuansen
narrow-dzesen
thick-maqtsu
heavy-baqdroq
thin-gualaq/laqgua
woman-njyli
man (adult male)-lanli
man (human being)-ren
child-uall
wife-ponjaq
husband-lanren
mother-ma/njaq
father-lauhal/di
animal-doqv/tcusen
fish-bai'
bird-txoll
dog-goull
louse-sedz
snake-soiedz
worm-tcoq'l
tree-cudz
forest-lin'l
stick-njaba
fruit-go'l
seed-droqdz
leaf-ie'
root-gen'
bark (of a tree)-cudz pi'
flower-hua
grass-tsau'l
rope-so'
skin-pi'
meat-gall
blood-xye
bone-gutou
fat (noun)-fei gall
egg-dan
horn-gobal
tail-ueibal
feather-ymau
hair-toufa/hanmal/mau'l
head-lauko
ear-lldo
eye-iendjn
nose-bidz
mouth-dzueibal
tooth-iaba
tongue (organ)-cetol
fingernail-drdjal
foot-djogan
leg-tueigan
knee-kexkal
hand-cougan
wing-yegal
belly-dupi
guts-dandz
neck-djndz
back-bei
breast-lai'
heart-xndz
liver-gandz
to drink-hoha
to eat-tcha
to bite-qauha
to suck-djyha
to spit-tuha
to vomit-hueiha
to blow-tcueiha
to breathe-tcuha tx
to laugh-xauha
to see-kanha
to hear-tinha
to know-xaude
to think-xaqha
to smell-unha
to fear-hapa
to sleep-kunha
to live-holau
to die-slau
to kill-calau
to fight-daha
to hunt-da lie
to hit-tcuaqha
to cut-txeha
to split-huaha
to stab-doha
to scratch-druaha
to dig-uaha
to swim-hua cuei
to fly-feiha
to walk-dzouha
to come-laiha
to lie (as in a bed)-kundau
to sit-dzodau
to stand-drandau
to turn (intransitive)-tceha
to fall-lolau
to give-lau gen
to hold-laudau
to squeeze-djha
to rub-tsadau
to wash-xha
to wipe-kaiha/maha
to pull-laha
to push-tueiha
to throw-diouha
to tie-kunha
to sew-dzaiha
to count-suha
to say-coha
to sing-tcaqha
to play-cuaha
to float-pudau
to flow-lioudau
to freeze-lintxlau
to swell-gutx
sun-taiiaq
moon-yeliaq
star-xn'
water-cuei
rain-y
river-ho
lake-fu
sea-hai
salt-ienba
stone-ctou
sand-ca'
dust-huei'
earth-tu
cloud-yn
fog-v
sky-tien
wind-foq
snow-xye
ice-bin
smoke-ien'
fire-ho
ash-huei'
to burn-rantx
road-lu
mountain-can
red-feihoq
green-guaqlu
yellow-goqhuaq
white-xynbe
black-txyhe
night-uaix
day-betien
year-njensen
warm-reho
cold-len
full-menlau
new-xnli
old-lauli
good-hauli
bad-pieli
rotten-olan
dirty-fandehen
straight-tcenli
round-yenli
sharp (as a knife)-kuaidehen
dull (as a knife)-ydehen
smooth-xhua
wet-djauc
dry-gansau
correct-dueili
near-djndehen
far-yendehen
right-ioucoubien
left-dzoucoubien
at-de/dzai
in-dzai...itou/litou
with-gendau
and-ho/gen
if-c...lihua/c...se/djabi
because-inuei
name-mindz

三、四川话的基本语法编辑

四川话的基本语法是“主谓宾”,比如:

Qo qai Stcuan. 我爱四川。

生词:qo3:我;qai4: 爱;S4tcuan1: 四川。

讲解:注意S必须用完整调,tcuan不能用完整调。

三、四川话的谓语和动词编辑

(一)动词的连续编辑

四川话表示心理动作的词可以再接表示身体动作的词。比如:

Qo qai ho Cuei. 我爱喝水。

生词:ho1: 喝;Cuei3: 水。

否则,两动词之间必须加lai2或dau3/tx3,比如:

Qo mai lai cua. 我买来玩。

生词:mai3: 买;cua3: 玩。

Qo tindau cua. /Qo tintx cua. 我听着玩儿。

lai有时间先后,dau和tx则表示同时发生。比如:

〔正确〕tintx Go cua. 听着歌玩儿。

〔错误〕tin Go lai cua. (因为应是边听歌边享受的,所以不能用有时间先后之别的lai)

生词:tin4: 听;Go1: 歌曲。

讲解:Go的位置应在tin之后、lai之前。从句的宾语应紧跟从句的谓语。

(二)动词的时态编辑