Haskell/控制结构
Haskell提供了几种方式来表达在不同的值间选择。本节描述了所有的方式并解释了他们的用途：
if 表达式
编辑你已经见过这些表达式了。完整的语法是：
if <condition> then <truevalue> else <falsevalue>
这里，条件是一个求值后得到一个布朗型的表达式。如果<条件>是True的，那么<truevalue>被返回，否则<falsevalue>被返回。注意Haskell中if是一个（被转化为一个值的）表达式──并非如通常的命令式语言那样是一个（被执行的）语句。这个事实的一个非常重要的后果则是Haskell中else是"必须的"。由于if是一个表达式，它必须求值得到一个结果，else保证了这一点。由于同一原因，通常的缩进同命令式语言有所不同。如果你需要把一个if表达式分为数行，那你应采用下面的缩进方式之一：
if <condition>
then <truevalue>
else <falsevalue>
if <condition>
then
<truevalue>
else
<falsevalue>
下面是一个简单的例子：
message42 :: Integer > String
message42 n =
if n == 42
then "The Answer is forty two."
else "The Answer is not forty two."
case表达式
编辑One interesting way of thinking about case expressions is seeing them as a generalization of if expressions. We could even write a clone of if as a case:
alternativeIf :: Bool > a > a > a
alternativeIf cond ifTrue ifFalse =
case cond of
True > ifTrue
False > ifFalse
First, this checks cond for a pattern match against True. If there is a match, the whole expression will evaluate to ifTrue, otherwise it will evaluate to ifFalse (since a Bool can only be True or False there is no need for a default case). case is more general than if because the pattern matching in which case selection is based allows it to work with expressions which evaluate to values of any type. ^{[1]} In fact, the left hand side of any case branch is just a pattern, so it can also be used for binding:
describeString :: String > String
describeString str =
case str of
(x:xs) > "The first character is: " ++ [x] ++ "; the rest of the string is: " ++ xs
"" > "This is an empty string."
This expression tells you whether str is an empty string or something else. Of course, you could just do this with an ifstatement (with a condition of str == []
), but using a case binds variables to the head and tail of our list, which is convenient in this instance.
Equations and Case Expressions
编辑Remember you can use multiple equations as an alternative to case expressions. The describeString function above could be written like this:
describeString :: String > String
describeString (x:xs) = "The first character is " ++ [x] ++ "; the rest of the string is " ++ xs
describeString "" = "This is the empty string."
Named functions and case expressions at the top level are completely interchangeable. In fact the function definition form shown here is just syntactic sugar for a case expression.
One handy thing about case expressions, and indeed about Haskell control structures in general, is that since they evaluate to values they can go inside other expressions just like an ordinary expression would. For example, this case expression evaluates to a string which is then concatenated with two other strings, all inside a single expression:
data Colour = Black  White  RGB Int Int Int
describeColour :: Colour > String
describeColour c =
"This colour is "
++ case c of
Black > "black"
White > "white"
RGB 0 0 0 > "black"
RGB 255 255 255 > "white"
_ > "freaky, man, sort of in between"
++ ", yeah?"
Writing this function in an equivalent way using the multiple equations style would need a named function inside something like a let block.
Guards
编辑As shown, if we have a toplevel case expression, we can just give multiple equations for the function instead, which is often neater. Is there an analogue for if expressions? It turns out there is. We use some additional syntax known as "guards". A guard is a boolean condition, like this:
describeLetter :: Char > String
describeLetter c
 c >= 'a' && c <= 'z' = "Lower case"
 c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z' = "Upper case"
 otherwise = "Not a letter"
Note the lack of an = before the first . Guards are evaluated in the order they appear. That is, if you have a set up similar to the following:
f (pattern1)  predicate1 = w
 predicate2 = x
f (pattern2)  predicate3 = y
 predicate4 = z
Then the input to f will be patternmatched against pattern1. If it succeeds, then predicate1 will be evaluated. If this is true, then w is returned. If not, then predicate2 is evaluated. If this is true, then x is returned. Again, if not, then we jump out of this 'branch' of f and try to pattern match against pattern2, repeating the guards procedure with predicate3 and predicate4. Unlike the else in if statements, otherwise is not mandatory. Still, if no guards match an error will be produced at runtime, so it's always a good idea to provide the 'otherwise' guard, even if it is just to handle the "But this can't happen!" case (which normally does happen anyway...).
The otherwise you saw above is actually just a normal value defined in the Standard Prelude as:
otherwise :: Bool
otherwise = True
This works because of the sequential evaluation described a couple of paragraphs back: if none of the guards previous to your 'otherwise' one are true, then your otherwise will definitely be true and so whatever is on the righthand side gets returned. It's just nice for readability's sake.
Notes
编辑 ↑ Again, this is quite different from what happens in most imperative languages, in which switch/case statements are restricted to equality tests, often only on integral primitive types.
控制结构 
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