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满语/第6节课 - 动词 1

< 满语

目录

对话和译文编辑

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例文 1 例文 1
udu goro jugūn be yabuha manggi 走了多远的路啊
suwembe arkan ucaraha 终于才遇到了你们
mini mujilen de bisire tondo sain andasa. 我心中忠实的好朋友
udu mudan kurtun be yabuha manggi 走了多少次轮回啊
muse arkan falinduha 我们终于才相互结交了
muse ere anda i guculen be hairacina. 让我们爱惜爱护这份友情吧
tarhūn sain ba na orho be ujihe 肥沃的地方养育了小草
alin deyere gasha be baktaha 山岭容纳了飞鸟
andasa i mujilen tala i adali mimbe sidarbutei 朋友们的心啊象旷野一样让我无比欢畅
edulere de muse nukcime yabucaha 迎风的时候我们一起奋勇向前了
eten i forgon de urgulecehe 胜利的时候我们一起欢乐了
jalan de suwe akūci ergen de jurgan akū ni. 世上如果没有你们生命就没了意义
  • 注:这段文字是一首当代满语歌曲《andasa i mujilen》的歌词,其作者是akšan(宋熙东)。
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例文 2 例文 2
bi manju gisun be tacimbi 我学习满语
i inu manju gisun be tacimbi 他也学习满语
Xiao Wang minde manju gisun be tacibuha 小王教了我满语
bi simbe manju gisun be tacibura 我会教你满语
Xiao Wang ya erinde isinjimbi? 小王什么时候到?
bi sarkū 我不知道

生词编辑

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满文 汉文 满文 汉文
adali 相同、相似、一样 anda 朋友、宾友、友伴
andasa 朋友们 arkan 不容易, 勉强
ba 地方、处所 baktambi 容纳、容得下
bimbi 有、在 bisire 有、在
deyembi edulembi 发狂、发疯、中风
ergen 生命 eten 胜利
falimbi 结交 falindumbi 互相结交、团结
forgon 季节、时节、时期、时代 gasha
goro guculen 友谊
hairacina 爱惜 (希望我们会爱惜) hairambi 爱惜
jalan 世、代、辈数、节、队伍 jugūn 路、道路
jurgan 义、义务 kurtun
manggi 以后、之后 mudan 次、回
mujilen 心、心思、心情 na 地、土地、大地
nukcime yabumbi 勇往直前 nukcimbi 激发、激怒
sidarambi 舒心、放心 sidarabumbi 使人放心
sidarbutei 使人放心 tala 原野
tarhūn tarhūn sain 肥沃
tondo 公、忠、直 ucarambi 相遇、遇见、遭遇、遭到
ujimbi 养、养育 urgulecembi 一起庆祝
urgulembi 庆祝 yabuha 行走过 (过去时)
yabumbi 行走、行事

语法编辑

动词(1)编辑

概述编辑

满语动词由词干和词尾构成。(有3个不变动词是例外。)动词的字典形式(标准形式)是现在时形式,词尾是-mbi。例如:arambi(写)由词干ara和词尾-mbi构成。动词的其他时态、语气则使用其他的词尾。

满语动词可以分为2类:

  • 原生动词 – 并非从名词、形容词等其他词类衍生的动词,例如arambi(书写)。
  • 派生动词 – 从名词、形容词等衍生的动词。

派生动词由名词、形容词加上后缀构成。下表列出常用后缀。以“n”结尾的名词在加后缀时通常去掉末尾的n。

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后缀 名词或形容词 派生动词
‘-ta’ (te, to) dasan (政治、治理) dasatambi (治理)
‘-da’ (de, do) jali (巧妙的) jalidambi (欺诈)
‘-na’ (ne, no) acan (联盟) acanambi (聚会)
‘-la’ (le) aba (狩猎) abalambi (狩猎)
‘-ra’ (re, ro) gisun (语言) gisurembi (说话)
‘-ša’ (še, šo) adali (相似) adalixambi (模仿)
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规则动词、不规则动词和不变动词编辑

根据变化方式,动词分为3类:

  • 规则动词 – 所有变化符合规则
  • 不规则动词 – 不完全符合规则的动词(见动词(3)章节的解说)
  • 不变动词 - 形态不随时态、语气发生变化的动词,永远只有一个词干。包括以下3个:
    • ‘bi’ – 有、存在
    • ‘akū’ – 没有、不存在
    • ‘joo’ – 不要理会、算了

Tense (时) in Manchu verbs编辑

Unlike say French, the conjugation of Manchu verbs is constant regardless of the person doing the action. I.e. the conjugation for you went and I went would both be 'genehe'. This means only one suffix has to be learnt for each of the tenses. It is convenient to split Manchu tenses into simple tenses (of which there are three) and complex tenses all of which are formed from the simple tenses with the addition of either converbs (such as -me or -fi) or auxiliary verbs (such as bi). See table:

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Tense (时) Suffix Example Translation
Simple Tenses
Present/Future -mbi arambi I write / I shall write
Present/Future -ra (-re, -ro) arara I shall write / I write
Past -ha (-he, -ho, -ka, -ke, -ko) araha I wrote
Past tenses
Indefinite Past -habi (-hebi, -hobi) arahabi I have written
Pluperfect -ha bihe, -ha bihebi araha bihe I had written
Imperfect 1 -mbihe, -mbihebi arambihe I was writing
Imperfect 2 -me bihe, -me bihebi arame bihebi I was writing
Present tenses
Present Continuous 1 -me bi, -me bimbi arame bi I am writing
Present Continuous 2 -me ilihabi arame ilihabi I am writing
Present Continuous 3 -mahabi aramahabi I am writing
Present Continuous 4 -me bisire + noun obome bisire jui The child who is washing
Present Continuous 5 -me bisire + postpostn obome bisire de While in the process of washing
Past Continuous 1 -ha bi araha bi Still writing (仍然在写)
Past Continuous 2 -fi bi arafi bi Still writing (还在写)
Past Continuous 3 -hai bi (-hei bi, hoi bi) arahai bi I’ve been continuously writing 一直写
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